NH State Fossil? – Part 4: Legislators to Students: “NO.”

“I don’t mean this in any unkind way, but not all bills pass, and that’s part of the lesson associated here.”

Representative John Sytek was discussing the bill to make a mastodon the NH State Fossil (H.B. 113).

“I’ve had my own bills not pass,” he continued. “And, well, that’s life!”

He and 19 other members of the NH House of Representatives were part of the committee responsible for hearing testimony in support of the bill. These representatives would then offer their recommendation to the rest of the 400 members. The full House would then vote on whether to pass the bill.

StateHouselookingup

[image of the NH State House, Concord, NH, taken by the author]

 

In other words, at a time when the House was voting on hundreds of other bills, the recommendation of that specific committee was crucial to this particular bill.

Of the 20 committee members, only four were present for the testimony.

A small group of 4th graders, Thom Smith and two local paleontologists—Dr. Will Clyde, UNH, and Dr. Gary Johnson, Dartmouth—presented their arguments in support of a state fossil late that afternoon on February 3rd.

The recommendation of the committee, voted 11-4 against the bill, was “inexpedient to legislate.”

“Remember, we were listening to a bill having to do with a symbol for the state. An icon,” Rep. Sytek explained by phone.

“This wasn’t a bill about the budget. This wasn’t eminent domain. This wasn’t licensing of doctors.

“All I’m saying is this bill, in and of itself, was interesting, and we’ve respected the efforts that the kids made, but this isn’t amending the constitution.

“So people who had other obligations want to meet their other obligations. And like every legislator, or everyone in life, you’ve got to balance one thing against another.”

StateHouseentrance

[image of NH State House front stairs and entrance, taken by the author]

 

Representative Greg Smith, one of the committee members not present for the testimony, answered questions later by phone about the bill and the legislative process.

“Basically,” he said, “we’ve got [hundreds of] bills. In a short couple of months, meeting one or two days a week, we’ve got to get through all those bills. And we’re basically volunteers.”

“I think timing-wise, the timing didn’t work out. I think this was intended to be one of the first bills that we saw, and, if you recall, we had such a snowy winter that a lot of the testimony [was] delayed.

“I wonder if things had been different, if this had been one of the very first bills we heard, the House might be more receptive to passing a bill early on like this.

“If we’re only sitting around for 2 hours and then we’re going home, it’s a lot different. Now,” he said, in reference to the number of bills in the House, “you’re in the traffic jam.”

Inclement weather this winter (a season, I might add, that even now, in April, is not yet over) prevented hearings from occurring as scheduled. Hearings were rescheduled to be heard on one long, full day versus over several days or weeks. Time was indeed a factor.

StateHousegallery-best

 

[Here is where bills are either passed or not passed. Image inside the NH State House, taken by the author]

 

And it’s easy, I think, to scoff at something such as a proposal for a state symbol or dismiss it as inconsequential in relation to issues like the budget.

But isn’t there substantial value in an engaged group of citizens, especially at such a young age? Isn’t this something we want to encourage, in a country where most adults are cynical of and many are ignorant of the political process?

And isn’t there great value to furthering educational and scientific resources, at a time when the country is concerned about both?

This is not to say that I think legislation should be passed simply because a group of young citizens are engaged. And I am also not suggesting that all educational or scientific bills be passed on the premise that they are related to education or science. But it did make me wonder why—beyond time and the subjective determination of importance—so many voted against it.

This is particularly puzzling when Rep. Sytek made a point to explain that the testimony given by the 4th graders was superlative.

“I want to commend [Thom Smith] for the work that he did in instructing and teaching these young citizens how our process works.

“Whether anything came of it or not, it’s virtually a dress rehearsal for their own time in the legislature. Because I think some of them will be there! The kids were remarkable! The passage or non-passage of the bill had nothing to do with the presentation.

“I made a point of telling the rest of the committee that this was one of the best presentations I’d seen,” he explained. “Now, I’m not talking about the Department of Health and Human Services necessarily; I’m talking about when interesting constituencies come: high school kids, maybe grammar school kids, a local organization trying to push something for their town comes in.

“This was really dynamite. I appreciated the effort [they made.]”

StateHousemembersonly

[image inside the NH State House, taken by the author]

 

So what were the reasons?

Would creating a state fossil require funding from the state? Would it involve more work for the legislature? Was the research, reasoning or quality of the testimony lacking? Did the legislators think a different fossil would make a better symbol?

What, outside of personal feelings regarding the symbol, would prompt a representative to vote against it?

Rep. Greg Smith was frank.

“I think it’s a bit subjective. You might get different answers from different people.”

“[T]here seems to be an effort by some fourth grade classes, as part of Civics [class], to try and submit bills for different things. [This] fossil bill is a good example.

“I think these are very worthy lessons. It’s great that the fourth graders are involved. But folks also need to understand that when we vote ‘yes’ on something like this, we’re telling the rest of the House, ‘hey, you guys should take the time and go vote on it and send it to the Senate’ because it’s that valuable.

“I think that’s where a lot of us have a concern: that the time we spend on things like the state raptor or the state fossil takes time away from other subjects that we don’t have as much time to research and debate. [This is] my opinion, but I think I speak for a number of others.

“I didn’t have any objection, you know, mastodon vs. mammoth,” he said in response to whether he disagreed with the choice of fossil proposed. “It was really more around that I didn’t feel that the state needs a state fossil.”

“We had a bill come to committee on a state poem,” he continued. “I was out of town that day, but I would have voted against it. I actually lead the charge against an effort to make Feb. 6 Ronald Reagan Day in NH, because Ronald Reagan never lived here, never grew up here. I’m a Republican, and I still thought that it wasn’t appropriate.

Rep. Sytek offered similar reasoning.

“It is true that it could easily be passed in the sense that it didn’t cost the state any money,” he said. “The question, I think, for some people is the appropriateness of talking about something like this when we’re faced with an enormous budget shortfall.

“It looks inappropriate to be talking about things that are of no fundamental significance to the Republic at a time when [we’re working on] the whole tax structure, spending on worthwhile social projects [such as] mental health issues [or] the condition of our roads and bridges. We can talk about everything. We’ll stay there as long as it takes to get the job done. But it doesn’t seem right to be talking about this.”

 

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[image from Getty Images illustrating some of NH’s State Symbols]

Rep. Greg Smith highlighted the scarcity of fossils in the state as a reason not to have a state fossil.

“[I]f we’re going to do something to make the State of NH Whatever,” he said, “there needs to be a strong and unique connection to NH.

“[L]et’s say, we found the biggest Tyrannosaurus rex fossil in the world and we found it in NH, well, that would be kind of interesting and unique.

“If we found more mammoths or mastodons in NH, [if] we found 100 mastodons, and it was world-famous, well, that would be kind of compelling. Something that makes it a connection to NH, not just a fossil for the sake of having a fossil.”

New Hampshire’s geology, however, makes it exceedingly difficult to find the type of fossils he described. As mentioned in the previous post, the geological components within the state do not preserve fossils as well as that of other states. Does that mean that the state should not celebrate the remarkable fossils it has?

“I feel bad, in a way, for the kids because I know they put a lot of time into it, but I would also say that they’re operating in an adult environment,” Rep. Smith stated. “And I saw a lot of really good bills that representatives put a lot of time into that would have, I believe, positively affected the citizens of NH, but they were voted down or they were killed off by special interests. So, I don’t want [the] fourth graders to be discouraged, but again, they’re being treated as adults. We’re not coddling them just because they’re fourth graders.”

“That may sound mean-spirited. It’s not meant to be, but it’s part of reality.”

The bill, not surprisingly, did not pass the NH House. And it cannot be introduced again for another two years.

“[T]hings don’t necessarily pass the first time around,” Rep. Smith said. “If it’s voted down, you can’t introduce the same bill in the same session. [I]n two years, you’re going to have 20-25% of the House turnover. So maybe they come back in two years and try again.”

“And,” he advised, “if you can get a more senior person or maybe a State Senator to weigh in, that carries weight. And then it becomes more of a personal favor. But you know, the committees, we pay attention to that sort of thing, too.”

Below are emails sent by some members of the committee to Thom Smith, published with permission by those who sent them.

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Dear Mr. Smith,

Thank you for writing. In short, I voted against this bill because I believe we have too many state “this or that”, too many special days, and too many special people days that we recognize already. Our committee also killed a day in recognition of Ronald Reagan recently as well as the adoption of a state poem, and last year the House tabled a bill creating state colors. It is also possible the House may table the pending Bobcat bill.

Though I realize your students must be very disappointed in the disposition of this bill, this is a great learning opportunity for them. I have sponsored many bills, most of which, by a huge majority, have failed to become law. No small effort was exerted in an attempt to see these bills pass and yes, I was disappointed.

The House has had well over 800 bills filed this session, can you imagine if even 50% of them had become law? Your students have learned a great lesson from the legislative process they experienced and failure is one of those experiences.

Thank you again for writing,
Steve

Steve Beaudoin
N.H. State Representative
Strafford District 9
Rochester
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Mr. Smith,

Unfortunately, I was busy at another hearing during the public session and at a work obligation for the executive session, so my comments are only of limited value.

With that said, I would have likely voted against passage as this committee has a significant amount of work and bills like the state poem and this one take us away from oversight of the various boards and the pension system. In general the committee is one of the busier ones and these extra bills do not get the attention they may deserve. One must consider that we are volunteers and in the case of myself, someone who works a full time job outside of Concord, cannot afford to take more than two days off each week to address this legislation.

I would love for a school class to take on a more technical issue, for example do we really need laws about cutting of hair, or what age to go to a tanning salon, or what requirements need to be met to paint someone’s nails……

Having sponsored/co-sponsored the 3rd most bills this year in the house, one gets used to bills not making it through the system. The founders intentionally made it hard to get a bill passed just to minimize how quickly changes to our government can take place. Specifically there are 3 separate gates [ House, Senate and Governor] to get through before a bill becomes law and this adds a significant amount of impedance to the system and this tends to slow down how quickly a statutory change is made.

FWIW, there are bills that I am working this year that are now in their 12th year and we may actually pass both chambers for the first time.

Please share the following quote with the students:
Never, never, never give up.
Winston Churchill
—-

FWIW, I would love to see a public classroom take a stand on drivers ed bill, or finding a solution to the “smarter” “balanced” assessments debacle.. There are some real issues that need to be addressed in the state and it seems our committee is not working on any of the critical issues.

Best regards,
Rep. Hoell
N.H. State Representative
Merrimack District 23
——————————-

Mr. Smith:

Here is the committee report that will appear in the calendar for this bill:

HB-113. This bill would designate the mastodon as the official state fossil (as does Michigan). It is the result of the third (now fourth) grade class project at Bradford elementary school. The Committee was impressed with the quality of the effort. The pupils enlisted the aid of both UNH and Dartmouth professors. Three well-spoken pupils stated their case in testimony before the Committee. However, the Committee felt that New Hampshire has enough cultural and historical artifacts such as our state motto, flower and bird. There was no compelling evidence to indicate that the lack of a state fossil would detract from the imagery of our state nor would adding this designation significantly complement the extant array of our state emblems.

My own personal comments follow.

The members who heard the presentation by your class were genuinely impressed by the obvious work that you as a teacher (I teach at Salem High, BTW) and your pupils did. It is often true that many members (of a citizen legislature) cannot be present for every hearing. However, they are used to reading bills, listening to other members of the Committee and making reasonable judgments on those bases.

However, to varying degrees, the majority of the committee simply did not feel that we need an official state fossil, regardless of the quality of the presentation. One of the professors said that this would raise public awareness of paleontology. I simply do not see that that is true nor do I see that as persuasive even if so.

Many bills are introduced and most of them do not get passed. That is a reality that every legislator understands. Last term, we had a similar presentation by schoolchildren who wanted to see NH adopt orange and red as our official state colors. That bill did not get passed for similar reasons.

Your class should understand that we turn down even requests from the Governor. The legislative process works slowly and persistence (i.e. future efforts) often are successful.

I hope this helps,

John Sytek
N.H. State Representative
Rockingham District 8

Video of a Kearsarge Regional student asking to have a mastodon as state fossil, posted by Rep. David Borden:

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I cannot extend a large enough THANK YOU to Thom Smith or his marvelous students.  I am so very impressed and grateful for their efforts, and I am so very sorry that the bill did not pass.

Thank you again to Representatives David Borden, Nancy Stiles, and Tom Sherman.

And thank you so much to Gary Andy.

Thank you to Representatives John Sytek and Greg Smith for their time and their responses to my questions. Thank you to Representatives John Sytek, JR Hoell and Steve Beaudoin for being willing to share their emails and the reasons behind their vote.

While this segment from Last Week Tonight with John Oliver is not about the state fossil bill, it is about the bill to make the red-tailed hawk the state raptor.  This bill was introduced at the same time, and it, too, was voted down.

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NH State Fossil? – Part 3: Proposing a Mastodon

I’d forgotten what it is like to be in an elementary school. Stepping into Kearsarge Regional in Bradford, NH, brought it all back: hallways with drawings hung on the wall, classrooms bustling with activity, and a crowded front office where the friendly receptionist—to my delight!—called Thom Smith on an enormous and antiquated buzzer system.

Thom is one of the two third grade teachers, and he’s been there for seven years.  We were meeting that winter day to discuss efforts toward creating a state fossil. He and his now former students had been working on this since October 2013.  It was now 2015; his third graders were currently in the 4th grade.  This had not, apparently, been an easy process.

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[snow in downtown Concord, NH this past winter, picture taken by the author]

 

Ask any elementary child about that state’s symbols, and that child will probably be able to tell you—most likely, with pride–what they are.  Ask an adult, however, and I’d be surprised if they knew more than a few of them.

State symbols, such as an official state bird, an official state fossil, etc., vary from state to state. Generally, they represent a specific flora, fauna or other item found abundantly in that state, so they vary depending upon the environment of the area.  There are no set rules to this, no requirements, no quotas. But a state symbol must be voted upon before it becomes official, so it does require an interested and active group of citizens to propose and see it through.

 

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[image of the NH State House, picture taken by the author]

 

Thom and these students, with help from Lauren Simpson—one of two 4th grade teachers—were trying to make a mastodon (specifically, Mammut americanum) the NH State Fossil.  That type of mastodon was abundant throughout North America, and it is one of the rare fossils found to-date in NH.

I was thrilled to learn of their project and wanted to hear more.

But this project was not without challenges from the start. New Hampshire, unlike many other states in the country, is fossil-poor.

This is not to say that extinct species of any previous time period didn’t exist here.  It simply means that the geological components within the state do not preserve fossils.  Fossils are that much harder to find, which makes the rare mammoth and mastodon tooth discoveries incredibly exciting.

Unfortunately, most people don’t realize this. And when dealing with something such as a state symbol—which generally indicates an abundance of that specific item—the immediate reaction is to assume that NH doesn’t merit a state fossil.

That January, Thom was optimistic.

NHSF - Class

 

[Thom Smith, his marvelous students, and Rep. David Borden, image courtesy of Thom Smith]

 

I was struck by his genuine warmth and graciousness.  He was eager to talk about the project and his students.  He had, he mentioned when I worried about the time, specifically crafted his curriculum for the day so that we could speak uninterrupted for the next 40 minutes.  We sat amid a sea of tiny chairs and desks.  Our conversation may have been adult, but I was acutely aware of how young the students are, marveling as I learned about their enthusiasm for both science and the political process.  These were passionate kids with an equally passionate teacher.

“When you can apply what the kids are learning to current events and what’s going on around them,” Thom explained, “it makes it a lot more meaningful.”

It was his students themselves that prompted the project. They had learned about fossils soon after learning about civics, and they were concerned that, of all New England states, NH alone does not have a state fossil.  They were the reason letters were written to local representatives in the beginning, and it was the students’ consistent interest and follow-up to Thom that prompted him to reach out to representatives in Rye, the town near which mammoth and mastodon fossils were discovered.  (These fossils were found by Captain Mike Anderson and his daughter, Kelsi, fishing off of the NH coast.)

 

 

When two of those representatives expressed an interest, the project started moving.  Congressmen David Borden and Tom Sherman jumped on board, eventually leading to other support within the House of Representatives, including Congresswoman Nancy Stiles, who was the third co-sponsor of the bill.

Representative Borden, however, seems to have taken a particular interest in the students, their teacher and the entire process.  He and his wife met them when the class visited Odiorne Point State Park.  He has visited them in Bradford as well, introducing the students to his dog.

With no little enthusiasm, Thom said of Rep. Borden, “He’s been amazing.”

The class also had the help of Dr. Will Clyde from UNH and Dr. Gary Johnson of Dartmouth, two paleontologists with whom they conferred to determine the best choice for a potential state fossil.  Both men also agreed to testify in support of the bill.

It seemed to me that this bill was in very good hands.  Thom and his students were organized, they had done their research, and they had the help of people in the field to support them.  While Thom expressed a little nervousness about the outcome of the vote, I was confident it would pass.  And why shouldn’t it? It seemed an easy vote: solid research, a unique state symbol, an engaged group of young citizens who were also interested in science, and—at a time when the budget is forefront in everyone’s minds–a bill that didn’t require any financial backing from the state.

How horribly naïve of me to think so.

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You can read Thom Smith’s blog here: https://thirdgradesmith.wordpress.com

Next up, last post in this series: the legislators vote and explain their vote.

NH State Fossil? – Part 2: Interview with 4th Grade Students

NHSF - Class members

[image of Rep. Dave Borden, select members of the 4th grade class working on the State Fossil proposal and Thom Smith, their teacher when they were in the 3rd grade, courtesy of Thom Smith]

Below is the initial Q&A I exchanged with Thom Smith (the students’ former teacher when they were in the 3rd grade); Lauren Simpson (the teacher of one of two 4th grade classes at Kearsarge Regional Elementary School) and the students.

All answers were given as “Ms. Simpson’s 4th grade class.”

1. Why do you want a state fossil in NH?

We want a state fossil because all the other states around us have state fossils.  There is only one other state has the mastodon, and that is Michigan.

 

2.  What have you learned about fossils in your class?

We have learned that there are different kinds of fossils.  Not all fossils are bones.  We learned that fossils are like clues.  We learned that digging for fossils can be a lot of fun, but can also take a long time and be difficult. 

 

NHSF - Class

[image of Thom Smith, students and Rep. Dave Borden, courtesy of Thom Smith]

 

3.  Do you ever imagine what NH might have looked like when mastodons lived? Does Mr. Smith’s/Ms. Simpson’s class make you think about things like that?

 

We know the Earth does not look like it did back when mastodons roamed the Earth.  The White Mountains were probably really tall back then, because the mountains hadn’t eroded as much.  Mount Sunapee was probably taller back then, too. 

 

NHSF - at statehouse

 

[some of the students getting a tour of the NH State House by Rep. Borden, image courtesy of Thom Smith]

 

4. Do you think you’d ever want to work with fossils? Discovering them or excavating them as paleontologists?

 

Yes, because…

  1. it might be cool to find a real fossil from way back and just be able to feel it.
  2. you could see the animals back then that don’t exist anymore.
  3. I think it would be fun digging fossils up like a treasure hunt.
  4. You might go on a really long fossil hunt. You might not find anything interesting but you also might find undiscovered species.  You would need a long attention span, though. 

 

5.  What do you think about the process of making a mastodon the state fossil? Has it been hard?  Or has it been fun?

 

I think…

  1. It’s a very long, hard process; it might actually take too long.
  2. It will be fun and a great way for us to learn about bills and stuff like that.

 

NHSF - at statehouse 2

[image of students touring the NH State House with Rep. Dave Borden, courtesy of Thom Smith]

 

6.  Is there anything that I haven’t asked that you would want people to know about on the blog?

 

  1. People should read up on the mastodon.
  2. A fossil of a mastodon was found on the coast of Rye, NH.
  3. It’s going to be really fun to see if we can make it be our state fossil.
  4. If other kids can make other state symbols, we can make this the state fossil.

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This is the first half of posts on the NH State Fossil. Up next, comments from some of the legislators themselves.

 

A Mammut americanum-sized THANK YOU to Thom Smith, Lauren Simpson and all of the remarkable students who worked so hard toward a State Fossil!  I remain impressed and inspired by all of them.

A Mammut americanum-sized THANK YOU to Representative Dave Borden who supported the class and its initiative from the very beginning.  An equally large THANK YOU to the two other sponsors of the bill: Rep. Nancy Stiles and Rep. Tom Sherman!

A Mammut americanum-sized THANK YOU to Will Clyde and Wallace Bothner at UNH and Gary Johnson at Dartmouth!

A Mammut americanum-sized THANK YOU to my friend, Gary Andy, who informed me of their work as it developed!

Thank you so very much to Allie Morris of the Concord Monitor for being the first to do a story about this process!

Thank you, Brady Carlson of NHPR and Dave Brooks of the Telegraph, for continuing to highlight this story!

 

NH State Fossil? – Part 1: Interview with Thom Smith

In the Fall of 2013, Thom Smith and his 3rd grade class in Bradford, NH began their quest to create a State Fossil.  After much research and consultation with local paleontologists, Mammut americanum (a type of mastodon that most likely resided in NH) became their fossil of choice.  They were finally able to present their testimony to a committee within the NH House of Representatives this past February.

The story does not end well.

And it is a story that did not get as much attention as another proposal for a State Raptor proposed by 4th graders from a different NH town.

Rather than begin the story with my version of events, I wanted to let Thom Smith and these marvelous students speak for themselves.

Below is the initial Q&A exchanged between Thom Smith and me this past January.

NHSF - Class

[image of Thom Smith with his students and Rep. David Borden, the first NH legislator to take an interest in the bill, courtesy of Thom Smith]

1. How do you discuss fossils with your students?

Thom Smith: Instruction of fossils is centered on the idea that discovering fossils is equivalent to discovering clues about our past and our planet’s past.  Fossils are clues that help us look into the lives of ancient animals and plants.  Students become excited when they discover that paleontology is not just digging up old things, but about being a detective looking for clues that will help tell us the history of our backyard’s past.  We delve further into fossils by learning about the four main types of fossils, as well as by participating in a “mock” paleontology dig on our school’s fitness and nature trail. 

2. How did you (or do you) learn about fossils/paleontology?

Thom Smith: I initially learned about paleontology in elementary school as well.  To be honest I do not remember any further education in paleontology beyond that point – except perhaps teachers occasionally touching upon paleontology matters in other science classes.  I currently learn about fossils by reading up on any current event article that comes to light in the news, or by reading about recent discoveries in magazines or online. 

3. What was it about this class that inspired you to try to have a state fossil created in NH?

Thom Smith: It was a shared inspiration, and honestly, it was my students that originally came up with the idea.  When studying fossils my students often discover through readings and research of their own that New Hampshire does not have a state fossil.  This past year was no different, and when they became discouraged at that fact I asked them if they wanted to try and do something about it.  We had just been involved on a unit of study on citizenship, and I thought it might be a good opportunity for them to see what speaking up for their concerns as citizens might do.  As a third grade teacher, I also get the privilege of instructing our students on the New Hampshire state “officials”.  Every year students become greatly interested in learning about the ladybug, the Karner Blue butterfly and the purple finch.  I also encouraged my students to try to have a state fossil declared in New Hampshire because I knew it would help increase student interest in paleontology and the importance of learning about our state’s ancient past if a bill was to become law. 

4.  Have you had any experience with legislation before? (How have you found the process so far?)

Thom Smith: I have not had any experience with legislation before, yet the process so far has been very educational and encouraging.  Representative David Borden, who was the first state representative to offer our class his assistance, has been incredible.  He is a kind, sincere individual who really cares about our state’s youth and education.  He has gone to great lengths to encourage and educate our school’s students about state legislation, and has done so with a humble and generous attitude.  He understands that this quest for a state fossil is not just because some students in a small town in New Hampshire want one, but because these students who wish to have a voice have good reasons for their request and need supportive adults to help them.  The process of legislation takes a lot of time, but I think it is understandably so, at least in this circumstance.

 

5. The Concord Monitor article indicates that you connected with Dr. Gary Johnson at Dartmouth and Dr. Will Clyde at UNH. What prompted you to connect with these two people? What have you learned from them?

Thom Smith: The class initially needed advice on discerning which fossil they believed would be the best fossil to represent our state.  I connected with Dr. Will Clyde at UNH because the class watched a news clip on WMUR that featured Dr. Clyde providing his expertise.  I connected with Dr. Johnson because I searched online for other experts on fossils from New Hampshire and discovered that his sedimentary geology field of study led him to the discovery of fossilized dinosaur footprints.  Both professors were immediately helpful and encouraging.  We learned that New Hampshire is not a good state in searching for fossils because of its granite make-up, but that fossils have been found in NH, including brachiopods, mammoth and mastodon fossils.  The mammoth and mastodon fossils had been found more recently, including by fishermen off the coast of Rye.  We more recently learned of support for our classes’ request from Professor of Geology Wallace Bothner at UNH as well.

6. Did your students think anything other than a mastodon should be the state fossil?

Thom Smith:  I found the decision to determine what fossil should be our state fossil another good lesson in citizenship responsibilities. Our class made a chart with brachiopods, mammoths and mastodons, and in each column we wrote down facts about each fossil and how it related to our state.  We discussed the possible “candidates” for a couple of class sessions then held a big vote.  The mastodon won unanimously for a variety of reasons – ones we outlined in a letter that we sent to state representatives asking for support.  Those reasons included:

  • This fossil was found recently off the coast of New Hampshire
  • This fossil is an official state fossil in only one other state
  • Two well-respected paleontologists from New Hampshire suggested it as a possible official state fossil
  • This fossil connects our state’s present (New Hampshire’s fishing industry) to our state’s past
  • This fossil is a piece of our state’s ancient history that we should recognize, and as an official state fossil has the potential to encourage others to learn about our state’s ancient past
  • Our surrounding states have state fossils but New Hampshire does not

 7. Do they understand what a mastodon is?

Thom Smith: My students understand that the mastodon is an extinct, shaggy-haired elephant-type creature, similar to the mammoth except often smaller, and with shorter legs and flatter heads.

Cohoes mastodon

[image of Cohoes mastodon at the NY State Museum in Albany, picture by the author]

Indiana State Museum - Ice Age depiction

[painting of mastodons from an exhibit at the Indiana State Museum, courtesy of the Indiana State Museum for this post]

8.  Have they seen the mammoth tooth at the Rye Public Library?

Thom Smith: We have yet to see the mastodon tooth (as well as the mammoth tooth) that were found off the coast of Rye, but hope to soon!  Dr. Will Clyde has seen the mastodon tooth and it is one in excellent shape.   The interesting connection to Rye is that our class also learns about the rocky shore each year and visits Odiorne Point, near the location of where the mastodon fossil was found.  Last June Representative Borden and his wife met us there on our class field trip – it was a great experience.

9. What can people do to help (if anything) with the establishment of a state fossil?

Thom Smith:  Advocate for it.  Publicize the possibility – make it known that this legislation is occurring now and that the more support we have the less likely our students’ bill will be dismissed.  Blog about it (like you are doing), post it on social media, email the possibility of a state fossil to friends and ask them to support the endeavor.  Contacting state legislators is incredibly easy – they are often just an email away, and many are ready and willing to hear your thoughts and voice your opinions in the state house.  The first committee hearing on the possible establishment of a state fossil is January 27th*, and we hope there are more that lead to this LSR becoming a state law.

[*This date was pushed to February, due to inclement weather in NH at that time–author’s note.]

10.  Are there any questions I haven’t asked that you think would be important for people to know?

 

Thom Smith: I would want everyone to know that this request for an establishment of a state fossil was made by students who had a genuine, valid concern and had the motivation to do something about it.  This request was to change our state’s history so that others might learn more about our state history – its ancient history.  It may be debated as to whether or not the mastodon should be considered our state’s fossil, and a healthy debate would be fine, but we would not want our students’ quest to be lost in arguments that could go round and round when the request for a state fossil is not just about what the fossil should be, but more importantly why there should be one: having a state fossil would result in a lot of positives, including an increased interest in paleontology at a variety of levels, particularly New Hampshire’s youth.

NHSF - Rep Borden and Thom Smith

[image of Rep. Dave Borden and Thom Smith at Odiorne Point State Park, courtesy of Thom Smith]

You can read more detail about the events leading up to this past March at Thom’s blog: https://thirdgradesmith.wordpress.com

EoFauna – Science, Art, Dinosaurs, Mammoths – Bringing the Extinct Back to Life!

(**To see any of these incredible images below in more detail, please click on them!)

Initially, the idea was a dream.

Asier Larramendi, from Donostia-San Sebastian, participated in social media platforms with people who shared his enthusiasm for mammoths and dinosaurs. Discussing and debating scientific details. Reading up on the latest scientific papers.

It was through these discussions on a dinosaur blog in 2007 that he met Rubén Molina: another artist, another person passionate about prehistoric life, and a person who—based in Mexico City—lived on the other side of the world.

They quit their jobs in 2010, and they formed a company in 2012.

Their dream took shape in the form of EoFauna, an international collection of award-winning paleoartists, sculptors, researchers and prehistoric enthusiasts. Their goal: to create scientifically accurate representations of prehistoric fauna, using the most up-to-date research as their guide. In addition, they hope to educate others and help correct any inaccuracies currently within the media and in museums.

eofauna - logo

(Image of the EoFauna Logo, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

The members and collaborators of their company are from all over the world:

Sante Mazzei, an award-winning paleoillustrator from Italy;
Andrey Atuchin, a zoologist and paleoillustrator from Russia;
Shuhei Tamura, a traditional artist from Japan;
Jorge Ortiz, a biologist, sculptor and paleoillustrator from Mexico;
Martha Garcia, a technical expert and painter from Mexico;
Shu-yu Hsu, a sculptor from Taiwan;
Feng Shan Lu, a modeler from Taiwan;
Alejandro Muñoz, a sculptor from Spain;
David Zhou, a sculptor from China;
Heraldo Mussolini, a paleoillustrator from Argentina;
Jimmy Liu, 3D animator from Taiwan.

Perhaps most striking about the people who make up EoFauna is that most are self-taught—if not within the science itself, then within their artistic mediums. Their knowledge stems from reading thousands of scientific papers, all of the related contemporary scientific books, and from a powerful motivation to understand prehistoric life and impart that understanding to other people.

EoFauna - extant proboscideans

(Image of extant proboscidean models, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

EoFana - extinct proboscideans

(Image of extinct proboscidean models, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

Asier Larramendi himself, has just published a paper about the Songhua River Mammoths in the peer-reviewed journal Paläontologische Zeitschrift (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12542-014-0222-8).

Their artwork is absolutely beautiful, incredibly detailed and so very lifelike.  One could say that this talented group of artists and researchers bring these extinct animals back to life.

Asier and Rubén very graciously took time out of their busy schedules to answer questions–in Spanish AND in English–about their company, their artwork and their research.

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1. From the “Prehistoric Times” article you very kindly sent, I can see that you and Rubén met through a blog.  How did you meet the other members of your staff?

De muy diferentes maneras, pero básicamente gracias a Internet. Con algunos de los colaboradores nos pusimos en contacto a través de conocidos sitios web de arte como DeviantArt, otros mediante blogs personales y redes sociales como Facebook, también hemos llegado a acuerdos con gente que contactan directamente con nosotros. Siempre buscamos y elegimos Artistas con gran talento y ganas de trabajar en diferentes proyectos. También hemos contactado con otro tipo de profesionales (Biólogos, Paleontólogos) a través de museos y universidades. Uno de nuestros objetivos es crear y dar servicios de primera calidad basados en la excelencia, rigurosidad científica y belleza artística.

In many different ways, but basically thanks to the Internet. Some of the partners we contacted through art websites known as DeviantArt; others through personal blogs and social networks like Facebook. We have also reached agreements with people who contact us directly. We always look for and chose artists with great talent and desire to work on different projects. We have also contacted other professionals (biologists, paleontologists) through museums and universities. One of our goals is to create and provide quality services based on excellence, scientific stringency and artistic pulchritrude.

EoFauna - Skulls

(Image of various skull sculptures, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

2. What kinds of clients contact you?  Is your artwork found in museums or in universities?

Por ahora la mayoría son particulares y coleccionistas, pero poco a poco nos estamos abriendo mercado en museos y otras instituciones, todavía somos una empresa muy joven. Algunas de nuestras paleo-esculturas se pueden ver en el Museo y Centro de Interpretación Luberri (http://www.luberri.org/eu/). Por otra parte ayudamos a museos que requieren de asesoría bibliográfica, identificación de fósiles fragmentados y apoyo para reconstrucción de organismos extintos.

At the moment, most are individual people and collectors, but gradually we are expanding our market to include museums and other institutions. We are still a very young company. Some of our paleo-sculptures can be seen at the Museum and Interpretation Centre of Luberri (http://www.luberri.org/eu/). On the other hand we help museums requiring bibliographic advice, identification of fragmented fossils, and support for reconstruction of extinct organisms.

EoFauna - Charonosaurus Andrey

(Image of Charonosaurus, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

 

3. Would your artwork be used in movies?

Si, eso es algo que tenemos mente, de hecho en estos momentos estamos trabajando en proyecto de animación 3D sobre un Mammuthus meridionalis para un museo Francés. Contamos con un fantástico modelador y un animador 3D de primer nivel. Colaborar en algún documental acerca de la vida prehistórica con nuestros 3D y asesoría científica, eso sería algo genial y trabajaremos para lograr ese sueño.

Yeah, that’s something that we have in our minds.  In fact, right now we are working on a 3D animation project: a Mammuthus meridionalis (Southern Mammoth) for a French museum. We collaborate with a fantastic 3D modeler and first-rate animator. Participating on a documentary about prehistoric life with our 3D and scientific advice, that would be something great, and we will work to achieve that dream.

EoFauna - Mammuthus meridonionalis

(Image of Mammuthus meridionalis, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

4. Have any of you participated in any fossil digs?

Alguno de nuestros colaboradores como Andrey Atuchin ha participado en trabajos de campo un par de años atrás en Blagoveshchensk (Lejano Oriente, Rusia, Cretácico Superior), y en Sharipovo (SO Siberia, edad Bathonian).

Por otro lado Rubén Molina ha visitado algunas colecciones fósiles tales como: Centro paleontológico Lago Barreales (CEPALB) o el museo de La Plata  a fin de tomar medidas propias de los holotipos de Futalognkosaurus,  Macrogryphosaurus, Argentinosaurus entre otros más. Asier Larramendi por su parte ha realizado trabajos de investigación estudiando algunas colecciones de Mueso de China, Taiwan y Europa. Las más destacadas serían la colección del Inner Mongolian Museum, Zhalainuoer National Mine Museum, National Museum of Natural Science of Taiwan, National natural history museum of Madrid, Mainz Natural history Museum…

Some of our collaborators. For example, Andrey Atuchin, participated in field work a couple of years ago in Blagoveshchensk (Far East, Russia, Late Cretaceous), and in Sharipovo (SW Siberia, Bathonian age).

Furthermore, Rubén Molina visited some fossil collections such as the Lake Barreales Paleontological Center (CEPALB) or the Museum of La Plata in order to make holotypes of Futalognkosaurus, Macrogryphosaurus, Argentinosaurus among others measures. Asier Larramendi, meanwhile, has conducted research studying some museum collections from China, Taiwan and Europe. The most notable would be the Inner Mongolian Museum, Zhalainuoer National Mine Museum, National Museum of Natural Science of Taiwan, National Natural History Museum of Madrid, Mainz Natural history Museum…

5. Your website says that most of your research relies on scientific papers, but that you’ve also been to a number of museums.  Has there been any specific paper or museum that has truly impacted your research?  Or do you have favorites among museums?

Bien, no hay un articulo en concreto, más bien nos fijamos en los trabajos de diferentes autores que nos llaman la atención. A parte de estar muy interesados en la evolución, filogenia, ecología, comportamiento… de las criaturas prehistóricas, uno de los campos más interesante para poder crear nuestras obras y productos, es el de la anatomía y morfología.

Son numerosos los títulos que utilizamos para nuestros trabajos, sin embargo destacan algunos por contener estudios especializados en ciertos temas:

Paleorecontrucción y estimación de pesos (Gregory Paul, Scott Hartman, Jerison)

Icnología  (Tony Thulborn)

Fisiología (Robert  Bakker)

Historia (Spalding &  Sarjeant)

Geografía (Weishampel, Dodson & Osmólska)

Recopilaciones (Matthew Carrano et al en Paleobiology Database)

Anatomía (Mathew Wedel , Mike Taylor, Mickey Mortimer en Theropod Database, Jeheskel Shoshani )

Bibliografía especializada (Tracy Ford en Paleofile)

Etc…

Tratamos siempre de estar actualizados y conseguir el mayor número de artículos científicos, libros relacionados con los dinosaurios y otros animales, temas prehistóricos, zoológicos y todo lo relacionado con el mundo animal. Por supuesto, uno de nuestros objetivos en relación con los dinosaurios es hacernos con todos los artículos descriptivos de todas las especies descritas hasta el día de hoy, por lo que siempre estamos muy encima en todo lo que se publica.

No tenemos un museo favorito, cada uno tiene su encanto. Algunos museos son muy espectaculares de cara al publico pero su colección en ocasiones es escasa, por lo contrario, en otras veces, pese que el museo es pequeño, en las entrañas de su colección puedes descubrir algo maravilloso que ha permanecido oculto e impacte a la comunidad científica. Todos guardan algún pequeño tesoro.

Well, there is no specific article. Rather, we follow the work of various authors who draw our attention.

Apart from being very interested in the evolution, phylogeny, ecology, behavior… of prehistoric creatures, anatomy and morphology are two of the most interesting fields in relation to our products.

There are numerous titles we use for our work. However, some are highlighted below as they contain specialized studies in certain subjects:

Paleoreconstruction and body mass estimates (Gregory Paul, Scott Hartman, Jerison)
Ichnology (Tony Thulborn)
Physiology (Robert Bakker)
History (Spalding & Sarjeant)
Geography (Weishampel , Dodson & Osmolska)
Compilations (Matthew Carrano et al in Paleobiology Database)
Anatomy (Mathew Wedel, Mike Taylor, Mickey Mortimer on Theropod Database, Jeheskel Shoshani)
Specialized literature (Tracy Ford on Paleofile)
Etc…

We always try to be up-to-date and get the highest number of scientific papers, books about dinosaurs and other animals, prehistoric and zoological themes, and everything related to the animal world. Of course, one of our objectives regarding dinosaurs, for example, is to get all of the recently published described-species articles, so we are always up on everything that is published.

We do not have a favorite museum; each has its charm. Some museums are spectacular for the general public, but its collection might be limited. In contrast, although the museum may be small, something wonderful might be discovered in the bowels of its collection that has remained hidden and might impact the scientific community. Normally all of them have some little treasure.

EoFauna - Guanlong

(Image of Guanlong, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

6. I notice feedback on your DeviantArt pages: http://EoFauna.deviantart.com/gallery/

Do you have a lot of debate with scientists over the details of your artwork?

Si, con Leonardo Filippi por ejemplo, revisamos el género Pitekunsaurus pues al parecer el occipital no coincidía en proporción con los demás huesos encontrados, que por mala fortuna son pocos. Analizamos y comparamos con otros géneros como son Antarctosaurus, Bonatitan, Rapetosaurus, Malawisaurus, Bonitasaura, Tapuiasaura y encontramos que resulta demasiado pequeño. Esto nos lleva a sugerir dos probabilidades, que el cráneo perteneció a otro ejemplar juvenil o que ese género fue un dinosaurio con la cabeza relativamente pequeña.

Yes. For example, we reviewed the genus of Pitekunsaurus with Leonardo Filippi because the occipital bone apparently did not match the proportion of other bones found. Those are very few. We analyzed and compared it to other genera such as Antarctosaurus, Bonatitan, Rapetosaurus, Malawisaurus, Bonitasaura, Tapuiasaura, and we found it too small. This leads us to suggest two probabilities: that the skull belonged to another juvenile individual, or that it was a dinosaur with a relatively small head.

EoFauna - Psittacosaurus bite force

(Image of Psittacosaurus, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

7. Can you tell me more about the book you’re working on? 

Claro, la obra en la que estamos trabajando trata sobre diferentes tipos de records en dinosaurios. Estos records, no sólo tratarán sobre los más grandes y de menor tamaño, incluirá record históricos, anatómicos y taxonómicos. Revisaremos algunos mitos que se han creado a fin de sustentarlos y descartarlos.

La obra está basada en datos recopilados durante años y cuidadosamente analizados para ofrecer un material confiable, además de que intentaremos aportar nuevas observaciones en diversos temas. Como adelanto decir que  mostraremos que dinosaurios fueron lo más grandes y más pequeños por zonas geográficas, periódicas, familias… Por otra parte, nuestro libro será el primero en mostrar todas las especies descritas hasta el día de hoy con su correspondiente tamaño estimado. Contamos con una base de datos basada en miles de artículos y recopilaciones que se publicará junto con la obra, para que se pueda verificar a fin de darle autenticidad de lo que se mostraremos. El libro será dibujado por los ilustradores Andrey Atuchin, Sante Mazzei, Jorge Ortiz Mendieta y los dos autores: Rubén Molina y Asier Larramendi.

Sure. The book we are working on is about different types of dinosaur records. We will include the largest and the smallest dinosaurs by epoch, geographic location, and families. We will also include historical, anatomical and taxonomic records. We will review some myths that have been created and discard them.

The work  is based on data collected for years and carefully analyzed to offer reliable material. Moreover, we will try to try  to bring new observations on various subjects. We will show which dinosaurs were largest and smallest geographically, by different periods, by families… Furthermore, our book will be the first to show all species described to-date with each species’ corresponding estimated size. We have a database based on thousands of papers and collections that will be published along with the book in order that anyone can verify the authenticity of that which we present. The book will be contain artwork by illustrators Andrey Atuchin, Sante Mazzei, Jorge Ortiz Mendieta, and two authors: Rubén Molina and Asier Larramendi .

EoFauna - Eotriceratops vs Triceratops

(Image of Triceratops horridus and Eotriceratops xerinsularis, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

 

8. Do you attend any paleontological conferences?  Will you be attending the Mammoth Conference in Greece this year? 

Si, Asier Larramendi como especialista en proboscideos estará presente en la sexta conferencia internacional de Mamuts y sus relativos (VI International Conference on Mammoths and their Relatives). Acudirán cerca de 200 científicos de todo el mundo, entre ellos varios de los mayores expertos en proboscídeos como Dick Mol o Adrian Lister. Será una gran oportunidad para estar al día de los nuevos descubrimientos y debatir con diferentes especialistas y poder hablar cara a cara con esos colegas que sólo se tiene contacto vía e-mail. La misma conferencia dará la oportunidad de ver in-situ algunos impresionantes hallazgos de probsocidos como los restos del mastodonte europeo, Mammut borsoni, incluyendo los dos colmillos más largos descubiertos en todo el mundo.

Asier por su parte, está preparando un manuscrito sobre la altura, tamaño corporal y morfología de los proboscídeos extintos que será enviado al congreso.

Yes. Asier Larramendi, our proboscideans specialist, will attend the Sixth International Conference on Mammoths and Their Relatives. The conference will be attended by nearly 200 scientists from all around the world, including several of the leading experts in proboscidea, such as Dick Mol and Adrian Lister. It will be a great opportunity to keep abreast of new discoveries and to be able to debate face-to-face with those specialists with whom we have only contacted via e-mail. The same conference will give the opportunity to see in-situ some awesome proboscidean findings, such as the remains of the European mastodon, Mammut borsoni, and the two of the longest tusks ever discovered worldwide.

Asier, meanwhile, is preparing a manuscript on the height, body size, and morphology of extinct proboscidea that will be sent to Congress.

Eofauna - M meridionalis and running paleontologist

(Image of paleontologist running from Mammuthus meridionalis, courtesy of Eofauna.com)

 

9. Can you tell me in what kind of projects or scientific papers are you involved?

Bien, tenemos en mente algunos otros libros relacionados con la vida prehistórica que nos gustaría ir realizando durante los próximos años. Durante esta año por ejemplo, revisaremos algunas colecciones y publicaremos algunos estudios en revistas con revisión científica externa. Asier por ejemplo acaba de publicar un estudio sobre los Mamuts del Río Songhua en la revista Paläontologische Zeitschrift (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12542-014-0222-8), en el que describe un espécimen completo. Como hemos comentado en la pregunta anterior, Asier está trabajando en un manuscrito acerca del tamaño y morfología de Proboscideos extintos. Rubén por su parte, está realizando diferentes estudios sobre la distribución geográfica de los dinosaurios durante las diferentes periodos y un estudio comparativo entre huesos incompletos de diferentes tipos de dinosaurios en México. Los resultados de estos estudios serán publicados durante el 2014.

Well, we have in mind to publish some other books related to prehistoric life over the next few years. During this year, for example, some collections will be revised, and several studies will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Asier, for example, has just published a study on Songhua River Mammoths in Zeitschrift Paläontologische (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12542-014-0222-8), which describes a complete specimen. As mentioned in the previous question, Asier is also working on a manuscript about the size and morphology of extinct proboscidea. Rubén, meanwhile, is conducting various studies on the geographical distribution of the dinosaurs during different periods and a comparative study on incomplete bones of different types of dinosaurs in Mexico. The results of these studies will be published in 2014.

EoFauna - Juvenile mastodon

(Image of juvenile mastodon, courtesy of EoFauna.com)

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A Mammuthus Columbi-sized thank you to Asier Larramendi and Rubén Molina!  What a great pleasure connecting with them and learning about their exciting company!

¡Muchas, muchas gracias!

Please be sure to check out their website! http://eofauna.com/en/

Asier’s recent paper is here:

Skeleton of a Late Pleistocene steppe mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii) from Zhalainuoer, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

Abstract

In 1980, in the Lingquan Strip Mine of Zhalainuoer, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China, two partial skeletons of Mammuthus trogontherii were unearthed and subsequently stored at the Inner Mongolian Museum in Hohhot. In March 1984, an almost complete skeleton of M. trogontherii was recovered in the same coal mine. This third steppe mammoth skeleton (Zhalainuoer III) is now exhibited at the Zhalainuoer Coal Mine Museum. It is the best-preserved skeleton of M. trogontherii ever found. A previously identified dropping and the enclosing sediments where the Zhalainuoer skeletons were found were dated to the Late Pleistocene. The almost complete third skeleton (Zhalainuoer III) is that of a fully grown male. The age at death of this individual was estimated at c. 53 years. It had a shoulder height of 389 cm in the flesh and a body mass of 10.5 tons. The completeness of the Zhalainuoer III skeleton provides new information about the morphology and the osteology of M. trogontherii. Especially noteworthy is the complete preservation of the caudal vertebrae.

 

Fossils AND Ghosts! Q&A with Todd Young

My first introduction with Big Bone Lick State Historic Park was through a book I found at my local library, Big Bone Lick: The Cradle of American Paleontology, by Stanley Hedeen.  In it, he describes two resources that brought animals (both prehistoric and contemporary) and people (Native Americans and those that followed) to that area.

A number of mammoth, mastodon and ground sloth fossils have been found there over the years.  This is a site I want to revisit on this blog, as some of the initial recorded discoveries were significant for paleontology as a whole.  Todd Young alludes to this in answer to question #6 below.

Todd Young, a Naturalist at the Park, generously (and so quickly!) responded to my questions about the Park and the upcoming event on October 24th that details paranormal sightings there.

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1. For those of us who are unable to attend, can you tell me more about what the program is like?
The program is a hybrid of the parks history coupled with paranormal claims at the park. Many people claim the history of the park has something to do with the paranormal activity reported at Big Bone. This program will accurately detail the history of people and events at the park. The paranormal evidence is being supplied  by paranormal groups and the general public who have investigated at the park.

2. Where does the information of paranormal activity come from?

The paranormal evidence comes from paranormal groups who have investigated here, the general public who has accompanied park sponsored investigations, and park staff.

3. Are any of the fossils at Big Bone Lick in situ?  How many fossils are currently on display at the park in general?

Bones that have been found outside on the park grounds are properly excavated and then stored so they are not taken. We only have a very limited display area so most of the bones and artifacts found at the park are in storage.

4. Do paleontologists continue to work here?
Yes. In 2008 the Cincinnati Museum Center conducted a paleontological dig to recover bison bones that had been found in the creek. Dr. Glenn Storrs, Dr. Bob Genheimer, and Dr. Stanley Hedeen led the dig and recovered several hundred bison bones from the site.

In 2012 the University of Cincinnati started profile work here at Big Bone to set the groundwork for a more comprehensive dig in the following years. In 2013, Dr. Ken Tankersley continued Paleontological and archaeological work at the park and recovered several hundred bones and bone fragments from many different species of animals including those from the last Ice Age.
 
Work will continue in 2014 from mid May until around the end of June and the general public is welcome to come and volunteer to help out.

5. Where are the fossils in relation to this map? http://parks.ky.gov/!userfiles/aParkBrochures/Maps/BigBoneLick.pdf

Fossils are generally buried well underground at the park and mostly are found in the low laying area around the creek.

6. Is there anything about the park (related to the fossils) that is not widely known?
There have been 5 holotypes found at Big Bone Lick. A holotype is a specimen of an animal that is first found in a certain location.

7. Are there any pictures of fossils from the park you’d like to include?
The best pictures you can find of fossil remains are from the recent dig. All of those pictures are on the UC field school Facebook page. You can find them at this URL location:  

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Big-Bone-Lick-Field-School-The-University-of-Cincinnati/421060577991318 

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For more information about Ghosts at Bone Lick on October 24th: http://parks.ky.gov/calendar/details/ghosts-of-big-bone/18858/

For more information about Big Bone Lick State Park: http://parks.ky.gov/parks/historicsites/big-bone-lick/

To volunteer for the dig in 2014, be sure to contact people at the park!  Here is the site’s contact page: http://parks.ky.gov/parks/historicsites/big-bone-lick/contact.aspx

Here is the contact info on the side of the page:
Phone: (859) 384-3522
Email: dean.henson@ky.gov
Park Manager: Dean Henson

Many, many thanks to Todd Young!!