A Personal Fossil Journey in New England

“Can you please help me find the Beneski Museum?”

This was the second student I’d asked. Initially, I’d asked a student for help finding the museum—no thank you, GPS–and then help with elusive parking. My request to the young woman in front of me was to help re-find the building I’d lost sight of amongst many other brick buildings.

She pointed me in the right direction, gave me detailed instructions, and added, “It will take you approximately three minutes to get there.” A thoughtful detail that made me smile that much more broadly.

Students with backpacks dotted the campus and passed me as I headed forward: some lost in thought, some in conversation, others laughing. Their presence, just as much as the rolling hills of manicured lawns, towering trees and historic buildings, made me feel right at home. Although not where I’d attended school, it felt similar, and I basked in the feelings that surfaced. Of course, none of these feelings included the stress or the struggles I felt throughout college. Long gone are the days of working most of the night on papers, studying for exams or the abject terror of oral presentations. No. These days I learn on my own, at my own pace, as I wish, and where I wish. I adore it.

But learning in this fashion is not at all linear.

A recent trip back to see Dinosaur State Park in Rocky Hill, CT, enabled me to re-read exhibits that didn’t mean as much to me when I’d first seen them so many years prior.

DSP - entrance

DSP - great view of tracks bridge diorama

Images of Dinosaur State Park, Rocky Hill, CT, taken by the author

 

Since that time, I’d read Dr. Anthony Martin’s “Dinosaurs Without Bones”—a fascinating journey into the science of learning more about extinct creatures through fossil traces. I’d also spoken with paleontologist, Dr. Karen Chin, about both ichnology (the aforementioned science) and the work of Dr. Martin Lockley—a man who has spent a lifetime learning about and collecting fossil footprints.

Pegasus - Dinosaurs Without Bones, Anthony Martin

Book cover to”Dinosaurs Without Bones” by Anthony J. Martin, Pegasus Books

 

So when I saw a small note about Edward Hitchcock and his collection of footprints, I decided to check it out.

DSP - sign New England ichnology

Informational panel at Dinosaur State Park that mentions Edward Hitchcock and Amherst College, taken by the author

 

Which is a long way of explaining why I had traveled a couple of hours south to Amherst College.

I knew the museum offered other fossils along with Hitchcock’s fossil footprint collection, but I did not expect them to be as diverse or as impressive.

 

 

Beneski - mammoth front

Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) skeleton at the Beneski Museum, Amherst College, taken by the author.  Smilodon and dire wolf skeletons are on the right.

Beneski - Irish elk

Irish elk (Megaloceros hibernicus) skeleton at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author

Beneski - mastodon front

American mastodon (Mammut americanum) at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author

 

Beneski - mastodon close-up jaw

Close-up of the American mastodon mandible at Beneski Museum, taken by the author. The lower tusk on this mastodon surprised me, and I spoke about this with Museum Educator, Fred Venne.  Conversations on Twitter prompted very interesting comments by @maxthemastodon from the Western Science Center, @dr_mastodonna (Dr. Katy Smith) and @chriswidga (Dr. Chris Widga).  It is important to note that this mastodon is comprised of components from at least two or more different mastodons.

 

Asking whether I could take pictures in the museum is how I first met Fred Venne, a tall, gracious man who walked toward me the moment he saw that I had questions.
I had never previously met a Museum Educator in person. Fred has now set the bar exceedingly high. It seems artful, his ability to share knowledge and offer insight, yet step away and enable someone to learn on one’s own—a very considerate balance. I marveled at this, just as I marveled at everything around me.

 

Beneski - Fossil Mammal Wall full great

Fossil Mammal Wall at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author

Beneski - Fossil Mammal Wall sign images

Images corresponding to the skeletons on the Fossil Mammal Wall at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author

Beneski - view of bottom and first floors

A view between two of the three floors at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author; notice the hint of fossil footprint slabs a the bottom right.

Beneski - gryposaurus - hadrosaur

Triceratops skull and Gryposaurus (a hadrosaur) skeleton at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author

Beneski - racks of Hitchcocks trace fossils

Beneski - great wall of tracks

Beneski - footprint on rack of trace fossils

Various images of the many trace fossils collected by Edward Hitchcock over his lifetime at the Beneski Museum, taken by the author

 

It was Fred who informed me of a nearby excavation site. Searching online in his office and writing down the address for me, he then called the owner of the site to make sure he knew I was coming.

(Fred also introduced me to a member of the team who discovered Tiktaalik and visiting scholar, Steve Gatesy. Dr. Gatesy very generously proceeded to explain a bit about his current research, picking up and showing me specimens of single fossil tracks. For a day in which my expectations were simply to see fossil footprints and maybe a handful of bone fossils, this was proving to be extraordinary.)

My GPS almost got it right. I pulled in to the driveway just short of the actual destination, the neighbors smiling and waving good-bye after explaining it was just down the road.

At first glance, Nash Dinosaur Tracks has the air of a campground. Situated in a rural area, one drives up a path to a large opening, surrounded by forest. There is a single building in the corner, a cozy construction with hand-made signs.

Nash Dinosaur Tracks sign

Entrance sign to Nash Dinosaur Tracks and Fossil Shop, taken by the author

Nash - road to the fossil store

Path leading into Nash Dinosaur Tracks and Fossil Shop, taken by the author

Nash - store outside

Nash Fossil Shop, taken by the author

Nash - dilophosaurus sign

Sign depicting Dilophosaurus, the type of dinosaur thought to produce the type of tracks in the area.  “Eubrontes” is a name coined by Edward Hitchcock to describe these tracks.  Image taken by the author.

Beneski - types of Hitchcock tracks2

Image of two types of tracks believed to be made by two different (as yet unknown) types of dinosaur, as defined by Edward Hitchcock: eubrontes and grallator.  Sign at Beneski Museum, image taken by the author.

 

I feel it’s important I mention two conflicting feelings I had when Fred first described Nash Dinosaur Tracks, an area of active excavation with a fossil shop: ambivalence and overwhelming enthusiasm.

I’m not a paleontologist.  I don’t even work in a museum. I’m still learning many of the very basics of paleontology. And I know that in this country, fossils found on personal land belong to the person who owns that land. I’ve read quite a bit about the sale of fossils throughout the world. I’ve communicated with paleontologists who have differing views on the subject.

It is enormously complicated.

Large, beautiful skeletons arrive on the market for auction, sold to those who can afford their extravagant prices and then lost to the general public.  Sometimes, those skeletons are donated to a museum (or sold at a lower price). But in some places, the sale of important fossils means survival for those who sell them, a much different type of economic exchange. The biggest lightning rod right now is the sale of ivory, a turbulent conflict that affects both human and elephant lives, and extends into the sale of mammoth tusks.

Do fossils belong to the general public?  And if so, what public? (Country of origin? International groups?) Do museums or scientists have a right to them above all?

I don’t have answers.

But I do know that I cringe every time I read about fossils being sold, and this colors my perspective on the sale of any fossil any where.  Even on personal land, such as that of Kornell Nash.

So it was with mixed feelings that I walked into the fossil shop and called out, “Hello?”

Nash - store inside

View inside Nash Fossil Shop, taken by the author

Nash - store footprints and fossil for sale

Examples of fossils for sale, some under $100, some $3000 in the shop; image taken by the author

Nash - store Kornell Nash - displaying layers of stone

Kornell Nash, holding a fossil footprint on its side to display the layers of rock; image taken by the author

 

Kornell Nash appeared and introductions were made. He seemed a very gentle, unassuming man.  I learned later that this had been his day off; he had, in fact, just awoken from a nap.  But he mentioned none of that initially.  When I asked about the quarry, he indicated where it was, pointing to a door leading behind the shop.

“Feel free to look around,” he said and disappeared.

Nash - store - outside door - footprints in stone

Stone outside of the door leading from the fossil shop to the quarry.  Can you find the fossil tracks?  (According to Kornell Nash, this stone was obtained by his father, Carlton Nash, from a different location.) Image taken by the author.

 

The word “quarry” in my mind conjures enormous stone and cavernous holes.  This was not such a place.  As I eagerly walked on a pine needle-strewn path, I kept expecting something bigger, something huge. Something to match my expectations of a place that had produced fossil footprints for decades.

What I came upon was a modest outcrop on an incline.

 

Nash - quarry - whole thing from path

View of the fossil quarry from the path, taken by the author

Nash - quarry looking up

View of the entire quarry, looking up, taken by the author

 

As I got closer, something crunched under foot.  I looked around me and saw bits of shale everywhere and I panicked.  Was I crushing fossil footprints?  Shale littered the ground; there was no where to walk without stepping on it, so I continued….gingerly.

Kornell had indicated there were large footprints across the top of the stone, but I didn’t see anything at first.  It wasn’t until I literally stepped upon the stone outcrop that I found them.

 

Nash - quarry footprint and pieces taken out

Example of an area of stone cut out by Kornell Nash, taken by the author

Nash - quarry shale segments

Segments of shale detritus that lines the back of the quarry, taken but the author

Nash - quarry footprint detail

One of the many fossil footprints in the quarry, taken by the author

 

This was my first experience with fossils in-situ.  More importantly, this was my first experience actually touching the evidence of the life of an extinct creature.  While I love fossil skeletons, there was something much more significant–something inordinately more meaningful–in seeing where an actual dinosaur had STEPPED. And it is no exaggeration to say that putting my fingers into these footprints was the closest thing to a spiritual moment for me.

This, from private land with a fossil shop. Not from a museum, my normal haven and revered institution, but from the very thing that caused my self-righteousness.

I thought about this when I eventually walked back to the shop.

Nash - store newspaper articles on wall

Nash - store newspaper articles on wall2

Newspaper articles of Nash Dinosaur Tracks (formerly known as “Dinosaurland”) and Kornell Nash on a wall in the fossil shop, images taken by the author

Nash - store pictures of Hitchcock and Mignon Talbot (blurry)

Pictures of Edward Hitchcock and Dr. Mignon Talbot–a paleontologist from Mount Holyoke College who discovered Podokesaurus in 1911. Kornell Nash’s dad, Carlton, corresponded with Dr. Talbot. Image taken by the author.  

 

There is so much history to the place, in and around the fossil shop.  Echoes of it hang on the walls, yellowed newspaper articles with edges curling and wrinkled.  Letters are tacked to a post.

Looking later on the Nash Dinosaur Tracks website, I was surprised to learn that Carlton (and George) Nash purchased the land in 1939 for $85.  Carlton Nash–Kornell’s father–is mentioned in the book “Bones for Barnum Brown” by Roland T. Bird.  Bird describes his visit with the family and seeing the fossilized remnants of what Carlton believed was an animal lying or sitting down.

Nash - store picture of how his dad found the footprints and animal lying down

Image of a picture of the fossilized trace of an animal lying or sitting down, according to Carlton Nash; picture of this picture taken by the author at the Nash Fossil Shop. This was described in a book by Roland T. Bird.

Nash - store footprints and impression of animal with tail lying

Image of that actual fossil with a slab of tracks above it in the fossil shop; image taken by the author

 

He communicated with numerous well-known scientists, including Dr. Mignon Talbot of Mount Holyoke College, discoverer of the Podokesaurus.  He donated a section of tracks to what is now known as Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech.  A response was sent from Grace Coolidge, the wife of former US president, Calvin Coolidge.

Carlton Nash passed away in 1997.  Kornell Nash has been the owner since.

I asked him if he shared his father’s passion for paleontology and geology.

“In a different way,” he emailed back. “I really enjoyed the travel growing up.  We traveled all over the United States at a time many of my friends didn’t even get out of the Northeast. In a way, dinosaurs are quite common to me. Doesn’t everyone’s father dig dinosaur tracks?”

Nash - store Kornell Nash describing detail of footprint

Kornell Nash describing the detail of a footprint in his fossil shop, taken by the author

 

I had a long way to drive home, and it was a beautiful drive on a beautiful day.  Autumn in New England means brisk air, pumpkins on the side of the road, corn stalks decorating porches. My head churned with what I’d experienced.  I pondered the people I’d met and the things I’d witnessed.

It was but one page in the chapters of my life thus far, but this page, I savor.

Nash - quarry footprints

A fossil footprint path in the quarry behind Nash Fossil Shop; image taken by the author

———-

Fred Venne made what might have been a good trip to the Beneski Museum one that was an absolutely outstanding adventure.  He is a superb ambassador for Amherst College, and I am profoundly grateful for his thoughtfulness.

A sincere thank you to Dr. Steve Gatesy for his time and his willingness to share details about his current research!

I am indebted to Kornell Nash for letting me explore his fossil quarry alone and for being able to actually touch fossil footprints in-situ.  I am grateful for his willingness to connect with me and share more insight into his father’s communication.

I am sincerely thankful to Amherst College for making the Beneski Museum open to the public (and for free!) It is a marvelous museum, and I encourage all interested to make the trip to see it!

And I remain consistently grateful (and awed) by the generosity of so many paleontologists who have helped me as I learn more about their field. You are all extraordinary!

Advertisements

Triceratops Fossil Will Remain in Boston!!

The triceratops fossil, named “Cliff”* after the grandfather of the man who originally bought it from the Christie’s auction in Paris and loaned it to the Museum of Science, Boston, WILL STAY IN BOSTON!!  The goal of $850,000 was actually exceeded (only 11 days before the deadline!) Additional money raised will go toward fossil maintenance, per the article in the Boston Globe.

THANK YOU TO EVERYONE who donated to this cause or made it known through word-of-mouth or online venues!!

CONGRATULATIONS, MUSEUM OF SCIENCE!

Goal reach for Mos.org

Screenshot of mos.org/keepcliff as it appears today

*Gender is not known in triceratops fossils, as I understand it, so this is not necessarily a male triceratops.

Thank you to Erin Shannon for keeping me in the loop!

Here is the Boston Globe’s article: https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2015/06/18/museum-science-gets-keep-cliff-triceratops/goTIqJg9hTslNm9xwWg48O/story.html

These Two Museums Need Your Help: Pt. 1 Triceratops Fossil in Boston

 

UPDATE 19 June 2015:  FUNDING HAS BEEN EXCEEDED.

———————–

Earlier, I wrote about the undetermined fate of a Triceratops fossil.  The Museum of Science Boston has until June 30th of this year (only weeks away!) to raise $850,000 in order to keep that fossil.  So far, the total raised is $450, 961.  This is significant, but it’s not enough.

You can help: http://mos.org/keepcliff

Keep Cliff MOS screenshot

Screenshot of mos.org/keepcliff, Museum of Science Boston

Triceratops Boston Museum of Science

Image of the Triceratops fossil at the Museum of Science Boston, taken by the author

cliff skull & museum

Image of Triceratops’ skull, Museum of Science Boston, taken by the author

Keep Cliff 1

 

A “Keep Cliff” panel at the Museum of Science Boston, image taken by the author

 

More information can be found here: https://mostlymammoths.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/the-undetermined-fate-of-a-rare-triceratops-fossil/

Color Vision Discovered in 300 Mya Fish

According to Dr. Gengo Tanaka, the fossil below was found about 50 years ago.

“I have a friend [who owns a] fossil shop,” he wrote in an email. “I bought this specimen from him.”

Dr. Tanaka explained that his friend attributed the fossil find to his father, who discovered it in a quarry five decades ago.

It’s a small fish known as Acanthodes bridge, and it is thought to have lived in shallow waters 300 million years ago in what is now Kansas.

 

Acanthodes bridge - Tanaka, et al

[image of fossilized Acanthodes bridge, courtesy of the Natural History Museum, London]

 

It might be a little fish, but it is providing enormous and exciting information about the evolution of color vision.

In their recent paper, Dr. Gengo Tanaka of Kumamoto UniversityProfessor Andrew Parker of the Natural History Museum, London and 13 other scientists describe evidence of color vision 100 million years earlier than previously known.  They are the first to record fossil rods and cones—the cells responsible for enabling sight.

“The soft tissue of eyes are usually the first to decompose when an animal dies, and before they are fossilized. In our fish, however,” wrote Professor Parker,  “the soft tissue was preserved before burial (by sediment) and turning to rock. The original organic material has been altered (but in some cases not too much), although remains relatively soft.”

Using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy), the scientists studied the fossil eyes in more depth.  They compared rods and cones of 509 retinal cells, obtained from the fossil itself and from existing freshwater fish.  Cones within the eye are the key to color vision, although they assert that the discovery of opsins in the fossil record would provide “conclusive evidence” for such vision.

“Cone cells are those responsible for colour vision in extant animals,” Professor Parker further explained. “They contain the opsins that react to different wavelengths of light.”

When asked if he expected to find color vision in this fossil, Dr. Tanaka wrote, “I have discovered fossilized rod and cones in several Cenozoic fishes. So, I expected that we could discover fossilized rod and cone cells in other specimens.”

Similarly, Professor Parker wrote, “I would expect to find colour vision in the geological record at some point, but I did not expect when.”

Acanthodes bridge - eye detail

 

[details of Acanthodes bridge, courtesy of the Natural History Museum, London; a: Complete dorsoventrally compressed specimen, b: details of the head region, c: details of right eye]

“We were a team interested in the emergence and history of vision, when Gengo [Tanaka] found the fossil fish,” he continued, describing how it came to pass that these 15 scientists collaborated on the paper.

But why would color vision be significant for a species such as Acanthodes bridge?

“That such ancient fish had colour vision tells us that the type of ecologies and behaviours that exist today, where light plays a major role, were also in place 300 million years ago. For the fish, they could distinguish predators and prey with greater accuracy and in some cases crack the camouflage of these animals.”

“This is the first time that colour vision has been identified in any extinct animal, regardless of geological age,” he wrote. “It suggests that our modern behavioural system, or way of living, where colour plays a major role, has been in place over at least 300 million years.”

“This can explain,” he continued, “why things have changed little over that period: predators and prey have changed form in some ways, but the balance of the different types of animals and plants living together has remained similar.  Triceratops has been replaced with rhinos, ichthyosaurs replaced by dolphins, but their roles in the ecosystem are similar. That they saw in the same way helps us to understand this.”

————————-

An enormous thank you to Chloe Kemberry, Dr. Gengo Tanaka and Dr. Andrew Parker!  What a great pleasure connecting with you about such an exciting discovery!

Paper referenced:

The Undetermined Fate of a Rare Triceratops Fossil

If you’ve visited the Museum of Science, Boston, and you’ve seen its fossil room, then you’ve seen Cliff.

Cliff - triceratops

 [image of Cliff, taken by the author]

It is an impressive specimen, and it is named after the grandfather of its anonymous donor.

“Cliff is mostly complete,” wrote E. James Kraus, Jr., the museum’s Executive Director of Development and Campaign Director, “making it one of the world’s rarest paleontological finds, and one of only four other largely complete Triceratops fossils on display in the world.”

The basic details of its excavation, purchase and temporary home in the Museum are in the public record:

  • It was excavated in the Hell Creek Formation in North Dakota in 2004.
  • Because it was discovered on private U.S. land, the fossil could be sold, and it was.
  • It was prepared by a commercial fossil company and mounted in Italy.
  • Its first owner was a private collector from Germany.
  • The fossil was auctioned by Christie’s in Paris, 2008; the asking price was not met.
  • Ultimately, the winning bid of $942,797 was from an anonymous man who was raised in Boston.
  • That man contacted the Museum of Science and offered to loan the fossil for a period of 7 years, as a way of giving back to the community.

TRICERATOPS
Fin du Crétacé, entre 67 et 65 millions d’années avant notre ère, découvert en 2004, Nord Dakota, Etats-Unis
T.Horridus Marsh 1889
Longueur: 680cm.

La longueur totale est de 6m80 avec le montage actuel.
The total length of this lot as currently mounted is 268 in.

Le squelette pourra recevoir le nom choisi par son futur acquéreur. Une plaque de détermination est placée sur le socle avec une surface vierge destinée au nom de baptême futur du dinosaure et au nom de l’acquéreur.

Le socle à gradin en bois et la monture en inox d’inspiration moderniste participe à la préciosité de l’ensemble.
[info from Cliff’s original catalog listing at Christie’s, courtesy of Christie’s]

That 7-year loan is about to expire, and in order to keep the fossil, the Museum of Science is currently trying to raise $850,000 by June 2015.

“At auction, Cliff is now valued in excess of $2 million, and Cliff’s owner has agreed to gift $1 million+ if we can raise the $850,000,” E. James Kraus, Jr. explained.

“We are planning several fundraising events,” he continued, “but the details are still being finalized.”

If you visit the museum and buy anything from its gift shops, you will see donation jars, and you will be asked if you’d like to round up the sum of your purchase to the nearest dollar to go toward this effort.

There is also on online campaign to raise money here: http://mos.org/keepcliff

Twitter: #KeepCliff

The requisite sum might seem extraordinary. And, if nothing else, it calls into question the concept of fossil ownership in this country.  Most people cannot afford to buy such fossils; few would donate them, on loan or otherwise.

This particular author is extremely grateful to be able to gaze at Cliff, stare at it from various angles and ponder what the animal might have been like in life, not to mention what it took to actually excavate the skeleton. The opportunity to see something that enormous and that rare, rather than a replica, cannot be overstated.

This, according to E. James Kraus, Jr., is what the donor hoped.

“He wished to have the fossil displayed for the education and enjoyment of the public and generously offered the fossil on long-term loan to the Museum of Science.”

And yet, the number of unanswered questions—in a field in which questions and transparency are encouraged–leaves this author a little unsettled.  Details that are a normal part of a fossil’s provenance are, in this case, absent to the public.

For example:

  • Who discovered the fossil?
  • Who excavated it?
  • How long did it take to excavate?
  • Who prepared the skeleton?
  • How, if at all, was it preserved?

Further questions, prompted by the situation of buying-and-selling a fossil, are also absent:

  • Who originally sold it to the German collector?
  • Why was the loan to the Boston Museum for 7 years?

And ultimately, the question that rises above all else: If the sum of $850,000 is not raised, will it be put back on auction?

—————————–

You can help: http://mos.org/keepcliff

The author would like to state–for the record–that personal opinions in this piece are not those of the Boston Museum of Science or of Christie’s.

Truly, thank you to Cliff’s donor for enabling us to share in this wonderful fossil!

Thank you to Erin Shannon, E. James Kraus, Jr., and to Beverly Bueninck!

And thank you to all of those at the Museum of Science for working toward keeping Cliff!

MOS - Cliff

 [image of Cliff, taken by the author]

Fossil Festival and activities – Museum of the Rockies

The Museum of the Rockies–located in Bozeman, Montana–has an enormous collection of fossils.  It is also home to Jack Horner, known even to those who do not follow paleontology as the consultant to the “Jurassic Park” films (next movie potentially released in 2015).  When I connected with him earlier this year, the museum had, among many others, over 100 Triceratops fossils.

The Boston Museum of Science held an entire day of presentations by paleontologists in March 2013 called “Dinosaur Day“.  Two of those presentations were done by Jack Horner himself, and John Scannella, mentioned below.  It was a fascinating day, so I am a bit envious of those who live near Bozeman and are able to visit this museum regularly.

The Museum of the Rockies has been celebrating National Fossil Day since its inception in 2010. The Fossil Festival events they have planned are listed further below.

Currently, there is a lot of activity surrounding the Wankel T-Rex (so named for its discoverer, Kathy Wankel, in 1988), a fossil they are trying to move to the Smithsonian.

Nonetheless, Angie Weikert, Education & Public Programs Director, generously responded to some of my questions:

———————————————–

1. What events occur during National Fossil Day?

We host three different events to celebrate with the Fossil Fest only being one of them.  This is our second annual Fossil Fest to celebrate National Fossil Day.

Fossil Festival
Tuesday, October 15| 3:30 – 6:30pm | Free with Museum admission
Join MOR in celebrating National Fossil Day.  Children ages 5-12 can become a “Junior Paleontologist” and receive an official badge or certificate from the National Park Service by completing fossil activities.  Explore the ways that paleontologists work, learn about Earth’s history, ancient plants and animals, and discover how you can protect fossils through engaging hands-on activities.

AFTERSCHOOL PROGRAMS (GRADES K–5)

Digging Dinos
Monday, October 14 or Tuesday, October 15| 3:45 – 5:00pm| $10 for members, $15 for non-members
Get your hands dirty as you learn how a fossil finds its way from the ground to a museum display.  Play a role in preparing a real dinosaur bone. Wear clothes that can get dirty – this class is going to get messy!
Tours for Tots (3–5 years)
Tues & Thurs: 10-11am | Wed: 2-3pm | Free for members, $5 for non-members
This program continues our efforts to introduce little ones (ages 3 – 5) to the wonders of museum learning. Each program offers a chance to ask questions and explore with a hands-on activity. We offer the same program three times a month.  Pre-registration is not required unless you are a preschool group.*

Fantastic Fossils
October 15 – 17

2. What is the oldest fossil you have in your collection?

Trilobites from the Horseshoe Hills north of Manhattan, MT are approximately 355 million years old.

3. What is the smallest fossil you have in your collection? (I ask because so many of them are enormous!)

Algae and insects (mites) from Canyon Ferry, near Helena, MT (approximately 25 million years old)

4. Are there any anecdotes about fossils, the museum or reactions to your collection that you would like to share?

MOR’s Paleontology research is always making waves in the established understanding of dinosaurs.  Several years ago our research found that two different dinosaurs were actually just different ages of the same species.  John Scannella’s research determined that Torosaurus was the adult stage of Triceratops.  Not long after John’s research was published, he received a letter from the mother of a 5 year old.  This mother was angry with John because her 5 year old would not stop crying.  Torosaurus was the little boy’s favorite dinosaur.  He did not want Toro to be a Triceratops.  The mother asked John to change his mind about his Toro and Trike research.  He politely declined.

To see more info on events at the Museum of the Rockies, please visit their website: http://www.museumoftherockies.org/Calendar.aspx

For more information on John Scannella and his work: http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2010/09/torosaurus-is-triceratops-5-questions-for-paleontologist-john-scannella/

http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/msu-paleontologist-questions-traditional-views-of-triceratops-torosaurus/article_8ece1ff0-8f9a-11df-a582-001cc4c002e0.html

For a fascinating talk by Jack Horner of the theories behind Triceratops, please see his TED talk here: http://www.ted.com/talks/jack_horner_shape_shifting_dinosaurs.html

For more information about the Wankel T-Rex and its transition, please see Meg Gannon’s piece from LiveScience: http://www.livescience.com/40218-government-shutdown-smithsonian-t-rex.html

Many, many thanks to Angie Weikert!!